Glossary of terms



Aven - natural limestone vertical shaft, born by the collapse or due to vertical movement of water in massive limestone.


Catchment - area of the surface waters of a river which they gather.


Canyon - very narrow portion of the valley with high and steep slopes and bottom of the riverbed entirely occupied.

Karst - Karst Terrain View

Cascada - vertical drop of water that occurs at the point where the river bed has a sharp bump.

Keys - piece of narrow valley with tall sides, dug in hard rocks.


Dolina - microdepresiune funnel-shaped, resulting from the dissolution of soluble rocks by water.


Exurgenta - output instead of a stream or river water flowing underground karst channel.


Cave formations - forms of calcium carbonate deposition from water infiltration caves (stalactites, stalagmites, columns, waves, valances, etc..)


Glacier - ice mass compact natural, permanent, resulting in the accumulation of snow, which by compaction, partial melting and freezing ice becomes compact. Romania is the only glacier in the caves and potholes of Bihor Mountains.

Alpine - the area above the upper limit of the forest, covered with grasslands, dwarf vegetation, etc.., Or no vegetation.

Scree - rugged cluster of fragments of rocks of different sizes from the slope of disaggregation and prăvălirea rocks.


Hoanca - dry valley, grass, free from erosion of a flowing water, specific karst areas.


Izbuc - Exurgenta popular term.

Spring - place output of underground water from cloth.


LAPI - microforms relief grooves or holes with aspect created by corrosion and partially soluble rocks by erosion.


Hot - round or oval hole dug in the rock by whirlpools of water, occur in areas where rivers have rapids and waterfalls bed.


Cave - natural underground void created by water circulation in soluble rocks.

Loss of water - a phenomenon specific karst regions, consisting of disappearance from the earth surface of a stream by sinkholes, strainers, caves, or by gradual infiltration into gravel bed.

Karst plateau - plateau (plateau) with karst (caves, sinkholes, potholes, sinkholes, blind valleys, clints, etc..)

Poli - closed karst depression, her ass flat water that usually flows are losing ground, but to fill the depression forming a lake floods temporarily.

Sink - instead of a loss of water through cracks being impenetrable to man, located usually at the foot of a limestone wall, the water flow is not pressure.

Portal - large cave mouth.


Karstic relief - relief specific regions soluble rocks (limestone, salt, gypsum), includes both endocarstice forms - caves, galleries, potholes, stalactites, stalagmites, draperies, etc.. - And exocarstice - blind valleys, gorges, slopes, sinkholes, poles, sinkholes, strainers, springs, clints, etc.. - Generated by the action of dissolution and movement of water from surface or underground channels.


Waterfall - break of slope, a bump in the thread valleys.

Sodol (Sohodol) - white or dry valley, steep, formed from water loss by deep fissures, sinkholes, etc..

Sorb - the ground instead of loss of a stream below the water mirror, the water flow is under pressure.

Stalactites, stalagmites - caves columns deposit of soluble rocks. Stalactites hang from the ceiling like icicles, stalagmites rising from the cave floor.

To - lower portion of peaks or ridges.


Tarnita - the term was used in the Apuseni Mountains.

Tau - lake.


Vale blind - closed valley downstream characteristic karst regions.

Vaiuga - narrow, shallow valley.